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Posted on Jul 10, 2017

How do you choose the right viewpoint and narrator for your novel?

We have the chance to work with some exceptionally talented and experienced editors at Reedsy. Kristen Stieffel is one of them: a writer, editor, and writing coach, she specializes in speculative fiction. Today, she shares her expert advice on viewpoint and narrators. Ever wondered whether you should write your book using first or third person? You need to read this!

Viewpoint, also known as point of view or POV, is one of the most complex facets of fiction. It is confusing and misunderstood, so viewpoint errors are among the most common errors editors see in new writers’ manuscripts.

Confusion about viewpoint stems from the very words we use to describe it: close third person, limited third person, middle third person … what do they mean? “Third person” doesn’t say anything about viewpoint. It only says you’re using he and she instead of I.

Think of viewpoint as a camera. Who’s carrying it? You have two choices: give it to a narrator, or give it to one or more characters.

The omniscient narrator

The omniscient narrator knows everything and can share anyone’s thoughts at any time. He can, and often does, make value judgments about the characters in the story.

Scrooge took his melancholy dinner in his usual melancholy tavern; and having read all the newspapers, and beguiled the rest of the evening with his banker’s-book, went home to bed. He lived in chambers which had once belonged to his deceased partner. They were a gloomy suite of rooms, in a lowering pile of building up a yard, where it had so little business to be, that one could scarcely help fancying it must have run there when it was a young house, playing at hide-and-seek with other houses, and forgotten the way out again.

—Charles Dickens, A Christmas Carol


Although most of the focus in this story is on Scrooge, he does not hold the viewpoint. The omniscient narrator does. The narrator makes judgments, calling Scrooge a ‘squeezing, wrenching, grasping, scraping, clutching, covetous, old sinner’. The narrator has a voice and personality of his own. Scrooge wouldn’t even get that joke about houses playing hide-and-seek, let alone tell it. If we rewrote this passage from his viewpoint, it would change drastically, making different observations and judgments and no jokes at all.

The limited narrator

The limited narrator can share the thoughts of a selected few characters, usually only one per scene. He seldom makes value judgments. He can take a long view, or focus on a single character.



The small boys came early to the hanging. It was still dark when the first three or four of them sidled out of the hovels, quiet as cats in their felt boots. A thin layer of fresh snow covered the little town like a new coat of paint, and theirs were the first footprints to blemish its perfect surface.

—Ken Follett, The Pillars of the Earth

Follett’s narrative voice is not that of the boys. ‘First footprints to blemish its perfect surface’ is not a phrase these rapscallions would think of. We can tell the viewpoint is with the narrator, because it sees the boys collectively. If the viewpoint were with any one of them, the scene would be completely different, and the narrative would have that boy’s voice. Limited narrator viewpoint is often mistaken for character viewpoint because both are usually written in the third person. The difference is in whether the narrative voice is distinct from the character’s voice. We’ll discuss this more when we get to character viewpoint.

The objective narrator

The objective narrator is like a photojournalist. He reports the story events, but he doesn’t judge and doesn’t read minds.


The girl stood up and walked to the end of the station. Across, on the other side, were fields of grain and trees along the banks of the Ebro. Far away, beyond the river, were mountains. The shadow of a cloud moved across the field of grain and she saw the river through the trees.

“And we could have all this,” she said. “And we could have everything and every day we make it more impossible.”

—Ernest Hemingway, Hills Like White Elephants

The narrator’s camera is mounted in the room, so we see and hear what’s going on, but we don’t know what the characters are thinking. Just as if we were waiting in the train station with this couple, all we can know is what we see and hear. If this scene were written from the viewpoint of either character, we would know that person’s thoughts. Revealing the thoughts of either one would reveal too much, so Hemingway chooses the impartial objective narrator. This style of narrator is also useful if the writer needs to show something happening—a volcano erupting, a bomb ticking, an asteroid hurtling through space—when no person is there to observe it.

Any narrator may hold the camera. But only the omniscient and limited narrators provide commentary, though to differing degrees. The objective narrator is a silent observer, with an unremarkable, almost invisible, prose style. In omniscient viewpoint, and to a lesser extent in limited viewpoint, it’s possible for the narrator to have a distinct personality. I would go so far as to say that in an omniscient viewpoint, it is necessary that the narrator persona have a distinct personality, like the narrator of A Christmas Carol.

The drawback to all of these is that any narrator puts psychic distance between the reader and the character. The advantage is that you can reveal information not known to the characters, or known to one character but not another. The narrator of A Christmas Carol, for example, tells the reader what other people think of Scrooge—things he cannot know.

Remember that your protagonist is not the viewpoint character. He is not carrying the camera. Your narrator holds the camera, but he’s not a character in the story. He is a persona observing the story.

Check out Kristen Stieffel’s profile on Reedsy here! And don’t forget to follow her on Twitter: @KristenStieffel

6 responses

C.C Hogan says:

08/05/2019 – 12:31

I am writing a huge Fantasy thingy that is stretching over a lot of volumes at the moment and I have, several times, considered how much responsibility for the story is carried by the narrator. With a short story it is easy to fix a style and stay with it, but with something that is going to be in excess of 1.5 million words at the end of the day, that is a little harder to keep going. To add a little complication, one of the more important plot elements is that characters have certain beliefs about their origins that are fundamentally wrong. When they think they have worked out the truth, later they find that was wrong too. Basically, they are rubbish at their own history. Now, a narrator that knows all is in the position to spoil the story so it is important for my narrator to be either as ignorant as the characters or to keep his/her mouth shut. In the end, my narrator works, I hope, empathetically with the characters. He/She adds to what the character sees and hears, but does not reveal things outside of the character's POV - including their knowledge. The narrator, like the character, is also ignorant of what the "baddies" are up to because I want both the characters and the readers to discover their world and the problems they face at the same speed. As the author, I know what monsters lurk around the corner, but my narrator does not. This is, by your description, a "limited narrator," but though they are limited in knowledge, I have not limited the narrator in words. The books are dialogue heavy, but at times my characters have little to say and my narrator takes full control of the story and can enjoy describing the scene, the sky, or the mood with as many words as they want - as long as they do not give anything away! I think at the end of the day, there is scope for the role of the narrator to change throughout a book, as long as that is with care, and with very long works, that may at times be a necessity. I suppose it has something to do with whether the narrator is, in reality, the author and if so, how much the author would like to be in the story. I have several places where I have described a village where I would dearly love to run away to and live and I have had to gag my narrator to not give that away too much and let the characters decide for themselves!

↪️ Kristen Stieffel replied:

21/01/2020 – 17:47

CC, huge fantasy epics are a great place to use a narrator, omniscient or not. Remember that even though the narrator may know all, they don't have to tell all! But I agree that for a work like this, a limited narrator can be the better choice for keeping things hidden from the reader.

butlerwm says:

08/05/2019 – 12:31

I will normally use limited narrator in my writing. At the same time, I enjoy reading omniscient narrator stories, if for no other reason than it's more like watching a movie. The downside in motion pictures, however, is you rarely know the thoughts of the character unless it's one of those few instances where a character becomes the narrator...I like those. I can understand Hemingway using the objective narrator. After all, he was hell bent on limiting the number of words used to tell his stories. Possibly one of the reasons I never enjoyed his work; try though I have. Instead I want to be inundated with sensory input. I want sights, smells, sounds, tastes, and the jumble of thoughts from characters. It's like the difference between toast with butter and toast with butter and jam. While one is good, the other is delectably. Then again, in reading, it a matter of personal preference. When writing one must know and anticipate what a certain readership is looking for in the market where we want to peddle our wares.

↪️ Kristen Stieffel replied:

08/05/2019 – 12:32

Yeah, I'm not really keen on Hemingway either, but I have to say, in this story his spare style does exactly what he set out to do, and that's to show you what's happening on the surface and making the reader deduce what's happening in the character's psyches. It is VERY important to know what your readership expects. And as writers, we have our own personal preferences, and the choice between Hemingway's objective narrator and Dickens's omniscient one is a big contributing factor to their differing styles and voices.

Alice says:

19/09/2019 – 19:01

I am writing a story from the protaganitis POV , her story is being told to an art critic who writes down her story.

↪️ Kristen Stieffel replied:

21/01/2020 – 17:52

That sounds like an interesting way to tell the story in a way that lets the character control the narrative. Just make sure you're not using "present-day" dialogue to tell a story that would better be told using scenes set in the past. The art critic interview could be used as a framing device in that case. That is to say, bookend the scenes of what *actually* happened between scenes of the character telling the art critic what she *claims* happened. ;)

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