What are Beta Readers — and How to Find Them
In the software industry, programmers release “beta” versions of new programs that they get a select group of users to test. This way, any kinks can be worked out before it becomes available to the public.
When it comes to publishing, the concept is the same, except the product being tested is a book, and the hopeful outcome is that potential negative reader reactions can be anticipated before publication. If authors are not sure which aspects of their book are working, this is a chance to find out.
In this guide, we’ll give you pointers for finding beta readers and working with them in a way that’s constructive. But first, let’s clearly define what beta readers are and what they do.
What are beta readers?
Beta readers review finished manuscripts before they're published, providing the author with feedback from the reader’s point of view.
Beta readers can be friends or family members — anyone who will approach the book as a casual reader, pointing out things they liked and disliked, and highlighting the elements writers become blind to during countless revisions.
A beta reader is the opposite of an alpha reader: the first person who reads and provides feedback on your manuscript, usually while it’s still a first draft.
Beta readers also differ from critique partners, as the former reviews the book from the reader perspective, while the latter looks at a manuscript with a writer’s eye — paying close attention to any craft issues.
Authors might also work with fact checkers at the final revision stage — especially if the author is writing about a culture or time period that is not their own, or if they are dealing with real life or sensitive topics.
Finally, a sensitivity reader is a type of beta reader — learn more about this controversial topic here.
Beta readers do not replace editors
While beta readers are a form of quality control that authors can use before publishing their book, you should not rely on them to do the job of a professional editor. A professional editor will go through your book with a fine-tooth comb looking for plot holes, pacing or character development issues, grammatical errors or typos, and more — depending on the type of editor you hire.
Typically, an author will:
- Take their manuscript through many rounds of self-editing. Then...
- When they are happy with it, they will submit it to a few beta readers. After…
- They might have sensitivity readers look it over. Finally…
- With as much of the revision work completed as possible, they will give it to an editor.
This way, if you are self-funding a professional editor, the editor doesn’t need to waste their time — and your money — looking over issues you could have spotted yourself. They can focus on really fine-tuning your manuscript for publication.
How many beta readers do you need?
The number of beta readers you decide to work with will depend entirely on your manuscript, and how much work you feel is needed at this stage. That being said, ideally you will work with more than one beta reader — while also keeping in mind there is such a thing as too many cooks in the kitchen, so to speak.
The benefit of working with more than one beta reader is, of course, that you’ll get a more diverse range of feedback. You’ll also be able to get a general consensus on any potential issues with your book — while one beta reader might feel like a certain scene should be cut, it could be that if you asked five other beta readers, they’d all feel like that scene plays a crucial role in the book.
While it’s smart to gather a group of beta readers, you don’t necessarily want to enlist the help from as many beta readers as possible. That would require a lot of coordination on your end, and could lead to an overly prolonged round of revisions. At the end of the day, everyone enjoys different things. While a group of ten beta readers is more than enough to provide you with consensus on your books, each of those ten people will also like/dislike varying elements of your book — and no matter how many beta readers you work with, you won’t be able to please everyone.
Do beta readers get paid?
While there are professional beta readers available for hire, most indie authors work out unpaid arrangements, simply due to budget restraints. If you are looking for free beta readers, decide ahead of time what you might offer them for their help: a free copy of the published book is fairly standard. Sometimes, especially if a beta reader goes above and beyond, authors will mention them in the acknowledgments of their book.
How to find beta readers
Yes, you can turn to friends and family for beta reading. They’re probably the easiest people to access, and a good option for that reason alone. But, unless you happen to have brutally honest relatives, you’re best off also looking outside your inner circle to ensure the most honest and candid feedback. Here are a few places to start.
These are ideal places to shop for beta readers, because the people who frequent writing communities will get it. Other writers who are also in the process of finishing up their manuscript will likely be looking for beta readers, too, and you can simply swap manuscripts and get the job done. Check out our blog post on 15 of the best online writing communities for aspiring authors, as well as the following seven websites:
- Absolute Write Water Cooler — while this forum might seem like a bit of a maze at first, the Beta Readers, Mentors, and Writing Buddies board has been a meeting place for authors and beta readers for years.
- Beta Readers and Critique Partners Facebook Group — this group has over 7,000 members and is moderated by a team of dedicated individuals who ensure the group remains self-promotion and spam-free.
- CP Matchmaking — essentially a matchmaking site that pairs authors with beta readers.
- Nathan's Bransford Forum — another beta reader/author matchmaking site, helmed by Nathan Bransford, author of How to Write a Novel.
- Goodreads Beta Reader Group — this mecca for booklovers is also a valuable resource for writers, and this group of beta readers is just one example of why.
- 10 Minute Novelists Facebook Group —as their "about" section puts it, this is a group for writers with big dreams, and small amounts of time. Therefore, the beta readers you meet here should be good with deadlines!
- My Writer's Circle — another very active writer's forum where you can enlist (and offer!) beta reading services.
Your author website
Have you set up a mailing list? In your newsletters, give people the option to sign up as a possible beta reader. In exchange, you can offer them a free copy of the final published title or an acknowledgment in your book.
This bibliophile’s mecca is not just for readers, it’s also home to plenty of groups that support writers. Like this one, which is, luckily enough, aimed at connecting writers with beta readers.
Local writing groups
Finding these can be as easy as typing “writer’s group [name of your location]” into Google. As a bonus, people are more likely to meet your deadlines when they have to see you face-to-face.
Existing author connections
You might have connections with fellow authors, either via social media or from attending conferences/meet-ups. Don’t be shy: ask them nicely to help with beta reading. At worst, you’ll get a: “No, thanks” or “Maybe next time.” An extra tip here: don’t be pushy. A no is a no.
How to work with beta readers
Now that you’ve assembled a dream team of beta readers, it’s time to get them, well, reading. Here are a few tips to ensure that all parties get the most out of the experience.
1. Look for beta readers with knowledge of your genre or subject matter
While honesty is a key quality of a good beta reader, they should also already read and enjoy books similar to yours. Their familiarity with the genre can help them point out played-out tropes they feel have been overused, or key elements they feel are missing. Looking for readers who know your subject matter can also help ensure you handle delicate topics with sensitivity, and that there aren’t any glaring discrepancies or inaccuracies.
2. But also look for beta readers who don’t already read books like yours
Ultimately, you should always write to market — in other words, if your book is young adult fantasy, you want to write a book that young adults who are into fantasy will enjoy. That being said, your feedback is likely to be most comprehensive if you show your manuscript to more than just existing Harry Potter fans.
3. Establish deadlines
If your beta reader is helping you out of the kindness of their heart, you might hesitate to give them a deadline. But as long as you are flexible and reasonable when setting your expectations, your beta readers will appreciate knowing when you’d like their feedback. And this will ensure you don’t get stuck in a drawn-out phase of endless revisions.
4. Be open to feedback — but don’t implement it all right away
There’s nothing that quite tests a person’s patience like writing a book, then asking others to read that book, and then anxiously waiting for their feedback. By the time your beta readers let you know that they’ve finished leaving notes, you’ll be raring to start putting their feedback to use. But it’s important to closely examine how implementing their advice or suggested changes will ripple through your manuscript.
Consider their feedback carefully, and look for any remarks that were made by more than one reader: this is a good signal something is obviously amiss.
The last tip is to give beta readers guidance by prompting them with questions about your book.
Questions to ask beta readers
The opportunity to find out what readers think of your book before you send it out into the world is extremely valuable. If there are specific areas of your manuscript that you're not sure about, take notes and put them in a list. If your beta readers don't mention these issues their own feedback, you can bring them up yourself. Here are a few question ideas to get you going.
- Are there any parts of the story that drag?
- Does each scene flow naturally into the next?
- Did you feel there were any areas that skipped over information?
- Does the pacing feel balanced — and are there any areas that are too slow or too intense?
- Are there any exposition dumps (places I over-inform the reader) you struggled to get through?
- Can you see the world clearly while reading?
- Can you see the action clearly while reading?
- Can you see the characters clearly while reading?
- Can you describe what the main characters look like?
- Was it clear who is talking?
- Does the dialogue sound natural and realistic?
- Does the character development feel natural?
- Are there any out-of-character moments?
- Do any of the characters feel cliche or stereotypical?
- Who is your favorite character and why?
- Who is your least favorite character and why?
- What’s your favorite part and why?
- Did you have a least favorite part? What is it and why?
The more you tailor these questions to your book, the better. So instead of asking “Is there natural flow between the scenes,” look for specific scene cuts you’re not sure about and mention them specifically.
Are you ready to start sending your manuscript to your pre-publication beta readers? Before you go, here are a few more additional resources to help you in these final stages of revisions.
- Novel Revision: Understanding the Craft [free course]
- Scene-by-Scene Editing for Authors [free course]
Have you worked with a beta reader before? What has your experience been like? Leave your thoughts in the comments below!